The Great Gangetic Plain of North India has proven to be fertile ground for the growth of indian culture and the rise and fall of imperial powers.everywhere,there are monuments yo the past in the midst of the rapid pulses of modern life.Delhi: Many Times a Capital the Capital of the world largest democratic nation rings with political debate,in the halls of parliament,in the press and in the streets.delhi is the active political center of a lively nation - Parades,demonstrations,and the ordinary hustle and bustle of government business are all around.splendidly uniformed guards and military officers are a common sight.Actually delhi is not a single city.there has been series of seven royal capitals here,capped off by the present day old delhi and new delhi.majestic halves of the modern metropolis most indian called simply delhi.
An ancient settlement ,indraprastha on the banks of yamna river,has left archaeological remains dating to the third or fourth century B.C. some believe this town was founded by the pandava brothers,mythical heroes of the epic mahabharata.during medieval times,hindu and then muslim rulers built a grand sequence of structures to commemorate their power.all around the delhi region stand the imposing remnants of walls,forts,arches,towers,palaces,and tombs,each bearing testimony to human effort and temporality.For the people of modern delhi,while traveling to work or school,it is usual to pass structurs built many centuries apart.here history is a apart of everyday life.A soaring tower of early muslim victory,the qutub minar,attracts many visitors.Impressively ornate,its construction was beun in twelfth century.Beautiful Calligraphy adorns the adjacent edifices.
The Delhi Zoo is built near the site of Purana qila,Or old fort,dating from the mid sixteenth century.Happy school children and families on outings gaze at caged tigers not far from the old sand stone tower where mughal emperor humayun struck his head and died.nearby his tomb,a fine expample of early mughal architecture.The elements in its design- a short building graced by high arched entrances and a pointed dome were later refined and reshaped into the magnificance of Agra's Tajmahal.of All of Delhi's time worn monuments,those built during the reign of the mughal emperor shah jahan are the most impressive.looming over the old city are the imposing crenelated russet sandstone walls of red fort,Lal Qila.within are the delicate white marble pearl mosque and the once resplendent hall of private audiance,where the emperor sat in splendour upon the magnificent peacock throne.This master piece of fine gems and gold was created off to persia,along with enormous amount of fabulous loot,by the plundering nadir shah in 1739.
In shah jahan's Time, a tree shaded avenue beautified by fountains and lovely shops laden with brocades,gems,ivory and fine carpets led from the fort toward the great mosque,jama masjid.the Avenue Chandni chowk-moonlight plaza-was crowded with a moving mosaic of the peoples of the mughal empire.today is still crowded,with a potpourri trucks,motors,rickshaws,,oxcarts,motorcycles,pedestrains and side walk vendors.shah jahan mosque still draw impressive throngs of worshippers,especially on the two annual id holidays,when thousands prostrate themselves to the almighty. within the walled courtyard of the domed seventeenth century structure.on January 26,of every year,the worlds greatest parade proceeds down rajpath,new delhi grand royal avenue,from the imposing secretariat building to the triumphal arch,india gate.to celebrate republic day,folk dancers from every state.marching soldiers,uniformed students,cultural floats,gold caparisoned elephants,tanks and jet planes parade before a gingantic crowd of city folk and villagers.The Grandiose display of Indian National unity and accomplishment take splace in a setting designed to glory british rule.The British had their viceregal capital at calcutta,but in 1911 decided to move into delhi.two architects,edwin Lutyens and herbert baker,designed the new capital of british india high lighted by broad avenues,great domes adminitrative buildings,and a circular parliament house.The New Capital was offically inauguarated in 1931.